Thanks go to several individuals who provided data, pictures, and perspectives shared in this article – John Johnson (ATI Alldyne), Kay Leong Lim (Hi-P Housing Appliance), Seong Jin Park (Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems), Julian Thomas (Springfield Munitions), Mike Sherwin (Kennametal), Benjamin Smarslok (University of Florida), Pavan Suri (Heraeus Materials Technology), and Lye King Tan (Acelent Technologies)



[1] R. M. German, Powder Injection Molding – Design and Applications, Innovative Material Solutions, State College, PA, 2003; available from the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF)

[2] G. M. Brasel and J. A. Sago, “Designed form MIM: An Enabling Technology,” Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials – 2004, Part 4, Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF), Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 125-141.

[3] B. P. Smarslok and R. M. German, “Identification of Design Parameters in Metal Powder Injection Molding,” Journal of Advanced Materials, 2005, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 3-11.

[4] P. Suri, B. P. Smarslok, and R. M. German, “Impact Properties of Sintered and Wrought 17-4 PH Stainless Steel,” Powder Metallurgy, 2006, vol. 49, pp. 40-47.

[5] S. R. Collins, “Corrosion Resistance of MIM 316L,” Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials – 2002, Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF), Princeton, NJ, 2002, pp. 10.240-10.254.

[6] H. Miura, H. Morikawa, Y. Kawakami, and A. Ishibashi, “Development of Self-Lubricating Wear Resistant Materials Through MIM Process,” Journal of the Japan Society of Powder and Powder Metallurgy, 1998, vol. 45, pp. 436-441.

[7]R. M. German and D. Blaine, “Production Cost Sensitivity Analysis for Metal Powder Injection Molding,” Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials – 2004, Part 4, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 1-10.

[8] F. Zweig, “Practical Guide to PIM Production – Metals,” Powder Injection Moulding, Proceedings of the First European Symposium on Powder Injection Moulding, European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA), Shrewsbury, United Kingdom, 1997, pp. 25-30.



Professor German is the author of 850 articles, 15 books, and 23 patents and has been active in PIM for over 20 years. He conducts research and consults with firms on issues of customer development, technology enhancements, new product development, and R&D policy. He founded and co-chaired the annual PIM Symposium. His has three books on PIM and is a Consulting Editor of PIM International.

Professor Randall M. German
Associate Dean of Engineering
College of Engineering
San Diego State University
5500 Campanile Drive
San Diego,
California 92182-1326


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Spring 2023 issue of PIM International magazine

In the latest issue of PIM International…

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Extensive MIM, CIM industry and sinter-based AM industry news, plus the following exclusive deep-dive articles and reports:

  • Visottica Group: Integrated workflows and the value of Metal Injection Moulding in eyewear and beyond
  • In MIM’s post-smartphone era, where is China’s Metal Injection Moulding industry going?
  • Ceramic AM at scale: The story of how Steinbach AG scaled production to 12,000 parts a year for Da Vinci Surgical Systems
  • MIM F75 (Co-Cr-Mo) for high-volume production: The impact of sintering conditions on microstructure and properties
  • World PM2022: Research into the Binder Jetting of aluminium, Ni-free stainless steel, hardmetals and metallic glass

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