Powders for Metal Injection Molding

Metal Injection Molding offers diversity: Stainless steels to titanium and superalloys

In Metal Injection Molding, particle size distribution is the most important powder characteristic as this determines the sinterability and surface quality of the final product. As a general rule, the finer the powder the better.

 

Carbonyl iron and nickel powders

Fortunately for Metal Injection Molding technology, very fine carbonyl iron and nickel powders were already in industrial production when the process was developed.

Powders for Metal Injection Moulding - Carbonyl

Fig. 4 Carbonyl iron powder (SEM, top, with scale showing 5μm) and cross-section of a particle (Courtesy BASF, Germany)

These powders have spherical particles, which is beneficial for good flowability, with particle sizes of less than 10 µm, an order of magnitude finer than the common atomised and reduced iron powders used in uniaxial powder compaction (Fig. 4).

Carbonyl iron powder has excellent sintering properties. The small particle size provides a high sintered density, excellent strength and surface texture quality in the final part. The uniform spherical particle shape gives high dimensional accuracy.

Many ferrous MIM alloys are based on carbonyl iron and nickel. Powders are mixed with elemental or master alloy powders to achieve the desired alloy composition.

 

Powders for Metal Injection Moulding - gas_atomised_powder_Osprey

Fig. 5 Gas atomised 90% 16 μm 17-4PH metal powder produced by Sandvik Osprey, UK

Water and gas atomised powders

Prealloyed powders are predominantly (but not exclusively) used for high alloy steels, nickel and cobalt base alloys. Alloy powders are usually gas atomised and have a spherical particle shape.

In some cases, water atomised powders with irregular particle shapes are also added.

With the growing demand for fine metal powders, manufacturers have improved their atomising techniques. Today, specialists offer many kinds of high alloy steel powders with less than 10 µm average particle size.

There are a number of well established companies supplying atomised powders for Metal Injection Molding, including producers in Europe, North America and Asia.

> Next page: Binders and Binder Removal Techniques

 

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As well as an extensive MIM and CIM industry news section, this 104-page issue includes the following exclusive articles and reports:

  • Threat or opportunity? The MIM industry as a partner, a target and a market for metal AM
  • WORLDPM2018 Congress: Global MIM markets show healthy growth
  • Ceramic Injection Moulding and Ceramic Additive Manufacturing side by side: Opportunities and challenges
  • Euro PM2018: Innovations in Metal Injection Moulding highlighted in Bilbao
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